## Reporting a Repeated-Measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report the results of a repeated-measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA style.  First, we give you a template that you can use for this purpose.  Then, we show you how to populate this template using your own SPSS output.  Finally, we provide an example of a repeated-measures … Read more

## Zoom In on SPSS Files Using Print Preview

There is no “zoom in” button in the data, output and syntax windows of SPSS, but it is possible to zoom in on SPSS files using Print Preview. Quick Steps Open your data, output or syntax file in SPSS Click File -> Print Preview Click Zoom In   First open your data (.sav), output (.spv) or … Read more

## How to Report a Two-Way ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we show you how to report a two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) from SPSS in APA style.  First, we provide a template that you can use to report your two-way ANOVA in APA style.  We show you how to populate it using your SPSS output, and we give you an example report … Read more

## Calculate Sample Size for a Pearson Correlation in SPSS

In this tutorial, we show you how to calculate a minimum sample size for a Pearson correlation coefficient using SPSS power analysis.  It is important to perform this calculation before you collect data for your study (although you may wish to carry out a pilot study beforehand).   Quick Steps Click Analyze -> Power Analysis … Read more

## Reporting an Independent Samples t-Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report an independent samples t-test from SPSS in APA style. First, we provide a template that you can use to report your independent samples t-test in APA style. Then we show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own t-test. Finally, we … Read more

## How to Report a One Way ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

This tutorial shows you how to report a one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) from SPSS in APA style.  First, we provide a template that you can use to report your one way ANOVA in APA style.  Then we show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own ANOVA.  Finally, we … Read more

## How to Format SPSS Tables in APA Style

Tables are used to organize numbers and/or text in columns and rows. Use tables (and charts) when doing so allows you to communicate your data more effectively than describing that data in the text. In this tutorial we show you how to format your SPSS tables in APA style.  We will do some of this … Read more

## How to Calculate and Interpret Cronbach’s Alpha in SPSS

Cronbach’s alpha is used to measure the reliability – or internal consistency – of a set of scale items. It can be used, for example, to assess the internal consistency of items on a Likert scale questionnaire. In this tutorial we will show you how to calculate and interpret Cronbach’s alpha in SPSS. Quick Steps … Read more

## How to Reverse Score Items in SPSS

In this tutorial we will show you how to reverse score items (i.e., variables) in SPSS. Quick Steps Click Transform -> Recode into Same Variables Click Reset (recommended) Move the items that you need to reverse score from the box on the left to the Variables box Click Old and New Values Under Old Value, in the Value field, type the … Read more

## How to Define Likert Scale Variables in SPSS

In this tutorial we show you how to define Likert scale items (variables) in SPSS. What Are Likert Scale Items? Likert scale items (variables) are commonly used in the questionnaires that we use to measure respondents’ attitudes and opinions.   Respondents are invited to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement, according to points on a … Read more

## How to Report Fisher’s Exact Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we show you how to report the results of Fisher’s exact test from SPSS in APA style.  For additional information about formatting your reports, please refer to the APA Style website First, we present a template that you can use to report your Fisher’s exact test in APA style.  Then we show … Read more

## How to Report One Sample t Tests from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report a one sample t test performed in SPSS in APA style. For additional information about formatting reports, please refer to the APA Style website. First, we provide a template that you can use to report your one sample t test in APA style. Then we show … Read more

## How to Report a Mann-Whitney U Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we show you how to report a Mann-Whitney U test from SPSS in APA style. For additional information about formatting your reports, please refer to the APA Style website. First, we provide a template that you can use to report your test in APA style. Then we show you how to populate … Read more

## How to Export SPSS Output to Other Applications

After you have run analyses or created charts and tables in SPSS, you may wish to export this information for use in another application.  In this tutorial, we show you how to export SPSS output as a Word, Excel, PDF or other file type. Quick Steps Ensure that your output file is open in the … Read more

## Report Pearson Correlation Coefficient from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we show you how to report a Pearson correlation coefficient performed in SPSS in APA style.  For additional information about formatting your reports, please refer to the APA Style website. First, we provide two templates that you can use to report your Pearson correlation coefficients in APA style.  Then we show you … Read more

## How to Create APA Style Charts in SPSS

This tutorial shows you how to create APA style charts in SPSS.  Charts are referred to as “figures” in the APA Style guidelines and include bar charts, pie charts, line graphs, scatter plots, histograms, and so on. Quick Steps Create your desired chart in SPSS Double-click on the chart in the SPSS Output Viewer Select … Read more

## How to Report a Chi Square Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report a Chi Square Test of Independence performed in SPSS in APA style.  For additional information about formatting your reports in APA style, please refer to the APA Style website. First, we provide a template that you can use to report your Chi Square Test of Independence … Read more

## How to Merge Files in SPSS

There are two ways in which you can merge files (data sets) in SPSS. Firstly, you can merge files that contain the same variables (fields or columns) but different records or cases (rows). Secondly, you can merge files that contain the same records or cases (rows) but different variables (fields or columns). The steps for … Read more

## How to Split Files in SPSS – Analyzing Data by Group

The Split File option in SPSS allows you to split your dataset into subgroups so that you can run the same analyses for each subgroup. SPSS does not split your file physically. Rather it separates your analyses using the categorical variable that you have used to split – or group – your data. Examples of … Read more

## Simple Main Effects Tests for Two-Way ANOVA with Significant Interaction in SPSS

In this tutorial we show you how to conduct simple main effects tests in SPSS for a two-way ANOVA with a significant interaction effect. We also show you how to interpret the results of these tests. The two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) assesses the effects of two independent categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable. … Read more