Paired Samples T-Test in R

In this tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret a paired samples t-test in R, and how to report the results. The paired samples t-test, also known as the dependent samples t-test, compares the mean difference between two measurements of the same continuous variable.  It is sometimes used in the context of … Read more

Independent Samples T-Test in R

The independent samples t-test compares the means of a continuous dependent variable (e.g., exam scores) for two independent groups (e.g., males and females) to determine whether there is a significant difference between them. In this tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret an independent samples t-test in R, and how to report the … Read more

How to Compute and Interpret Levene’s Test in R

Levene’s test is used to determine whether the variance of a numeric variable (e.g., exam scores) is equal across two or more groups (e.g., male students and female students).  That is, it is assesses equality of variances, an assumption of many statistical tests. In this tutorial we will show you how to compute and interpret … Read more

How to Test for Normality in R

It is an assumption of many statistical tests that our data be normally distributed.  There are two broad approaches to testing normality.  The first is to assess it visually, by reviewing a graph of the data.  The second is to assess it numerically, by conducting a normality test. In this quick tutorial, we will show you … Read more

How to Create and Customize a Histogram in R

Histograms allow us to visualize the distribution of quantitative variables like exam scores. In this tutorial we will show you how to create and customize a histogram in R using the the ggplot2 visualization package.  We will be working in RStudio, a program that makes it easier to work with R. Install and Load ggplot2 Since … Read more

How to Create a Scatter Plot in R

Scatter plots give us a helpful way of visualizing the relationship between two numeric variables.  In this tutorial, we will  show you how to create a scatter plot in R using RStudio, a program that makes it easier to work with R. Install ggplot2 The best way to create a scatter plot in RStudio is … Read more

How to Import CSV Files into R

In this tutorial, we will show you one of the easiest methods you can use to import CSV files into R.   We will be working with RStudio, a program that makes it easier for users to work with R, and we will be using the the readr package.    Quick Steps Type install.packages(“tidyverse”) and click … Read more

How to Generate Random Numbers in R

In this tutorial, we will show you how to generate random numbers in R. Specifically, we will show you how to generate random numbers from both uniform distributions and normal distributions.   Throughout the tutorial we will be using RStudio, a program that makes it easier to work with R.   Generating Random Numbers from Uniform Distributions … Read more

How to Import Excel Files into R

In this tutorial, we will show you one of the easiest ways to import Excel (.xlsx and .xls) files into R using the readxl package.   We will be working with RStudio, a program that makes it easier to work with R.   Quick Steps Type install.packages(“tidyverse”) and click enter on your keyboard to install the … Read more

How to Import SPSS Data Sets into R

In this tutorial, we show you a quick and simple way to import SPSS (.sav) data files into R using the haven package. We will be working with RStudio, a program that makes it easier to work with R.   Quick Steps Type install.packages(“tidyverse”) and select enter on your keyboard to install tidyverse packages From … Read more

Report a Point-Biserial Correlation from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report a point-biserial correlation from SPSS in APA style.  First, we will provide two templates that you can use to report your point-biserial correlation in APA style.  Then we will show you how to populate these templates using your SPSS output.  Finally, we will show you … Read more

Calculate and Interpret a Point-Biserial Correlation in SPSS

The point-biserial correlation is a special case of a Pearson correlation.  It measures the strength and direction of the relationship between a dichotomous variable (e.g., pass or fail) and a continuous variable (e.g., exam scores).  A dichotomous variable is a variable that has two values only, for example, male or female, pass or fail.  In … Read more

Report a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report your Wilcoxon signed-rank test from SPSS in APA style. First, we give you a template that you can use to report your results.  Then, we explain how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own test.  Finally, we give you an example … Read more

Report Chi-Square Goodness of Fit from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report your chi-square goodness of fit test from SPSS in APA style. First, we give you a template that you can use to report your results.  Then, we show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own test.  Finally, we give … Read more

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test in SPSS

In this tutorial we will show you how to perform and interpret the chi-square goodness of fit test in SPSS.   Quick Steps Click Analyze -> Nonparametric Tests -> Legacy Dialogs -> Chi-square Move your categorical variable to the Test Variable List box. Under Expected Values: Ensure that the All categories equal option is checked OR Check the Values option and enter your … Read more

Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test in SPSS

In this quick tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret a Wilcoxon signed-rank test in SPSS. Quick Steps Click Analyze -> Nonparametric tests -> Legacy Dialogs -> 2 Related samples… Click Reset (recommended). Move your first variable to the Variable1 cell of the Test Pairs box Move your second variable to the Variable2 … Read more

How to Create a Simple Line Graph in SPSS

In this tutorial, we show you the easiest way to create a simple line graph in SPSS. Quick Steps Click Graphs -> Line (in newer versions of SPSS) OR Click Graphs -> Legacy Dialogs -> Line (in older versions of SPSS) Ensure that Simple is selected. Under Data in Chart Are, select Values of individual cases Click Define … Read more

Report Spearman’s Correlation from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report a Spearman’s rank order correlation from SPSS in APA style. We have included two templates for reporting your Spearman’s correlation here.  We will demonstrate how to populate these templates using the SPSS output from your own study.  In addition, at the end of the tutorial, … Read more