# Quick Tutorials

These quick SPSS tutorials are designed to get you the result you need as fast as possible.

They work on the assumption that you have already added data into SPSS, and what you need to know is how to perform a specific calculation and to interpret the result.

If you require a more in-depth understanding, then you should check out our detailed tutorials.

You can find a complete list of quick tutorials here.

## Paired Samples T-Test in R

In this tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret a paired samples t-test in R, and how to report the results. The paired samples t-test, also known … Read more

## Independent Samples T-Test in R

The independent samples t-test compares the means of a continuous dependent variable (e.g., exam scores) for two independent groups (e.g., males and females) to determine whether there is a significant difference … Read more

## How to Compute and Interpret Levene’s Test in R

Levene’s test is used to determine whether the variance of a numeric variable (e.g., exam scores) is equal across two or more groups (e.g., male students and female students).  That … Read more

## How to Test for Normality in R

It is an assumption of many statistical tests that our data be normally distributed.  There are two broad approaches to testing normality.  The first is to assess it visually, by reviewing … Read more

## How to Create and Customize a Histogram in R

Histograms allow us to visualize the distribution of quantitative variables like exam scores. In this tutorial we will show you how to create and customize a histogram in R using … Read more

## How to Create a Scatter Plot in R

Scatter plots give us a helpful way of visualizing the relationship between two numeric variables.  In this tutorial, we will  show you how to create a scatter plot in R … Read more

## How to Import CSV Files into R

In this tutorial, we will show you one of the easiest methods you can use to import CSV files into R.   We will be working with RStudio, a program that … Read more

## How to Generate Random Numbers in R

In this tutorial, we will show you how to generate random numbers in R. Specifically, we will show you how to generate random numbers from both uniform distributions and normal … Read more

## How to Import Excel Files into R

In this tutorial, we will show you one of the easiest ways to import Excel (.xlsx and .xls) files into R using the readxl package.   We will be working with … Read more