# Detailed Tutorials

These SPSS tutorials are designed to be detailed and comprehensive, but still easy to understand.

If you just want to get to your result as quickly as possible, then try our Quick Tutorials. Otherwise follow the links here as a first step on your journey to gaining a full understanding of the tools and resources on offer within the SPSS statistics package.

## How to Create and Interpret Boxplots in R

Boxplots are graphs that can help us to visualize the distribution of numeric data, and to identify outliers. They can be especially useful when we want to compare the distribution of numeric variables between different groups, for example, we can use them to compare the distribution of exam scores for male and female students. In … Read more

## Pearson Correlation and Interpretation in R

The Pearson correlation coefficient provides a measure of the strength and direction of a liner relationship between two continuous variables.  In this tutorial, we will show you how to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient in R, as well as how to interpret and write up the results.  We will be working with RStudio, a program … Read more

## How to Manually Enter Data in R: A Step-by-Step Guide

In this tutorial, we show you how to manually enter data in R by working through a few simple examples.   We will use RStudio, a program that makes it easier for users to work with R. We start by showing you how to create vectors (or variables) in RStudio.  Then we show you how to … Read more

## Report a Kruskal-Wallis Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report a Kruskal-Wallis test from SPSS in APA style. First we give you a template that you can use to report the results of a Kruskal-Wallis test.  Next we show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own test.  Finally we … Read more

## Kruskal-Wallis Test With Post-Hoc in SPSS

In this tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret a Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc analysis in SPSS.  Researchers use the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether there are differences between three or more groups on a dependent variable measured at the continuous or ordinal level.  For example, we could use it to evaluate … Read more

## How to Clean Data in SPSS

In this tutorial, we will show you how to clean your data in SPSS. What is Data Cleaning? Data cleaning is the process of reviewing a data set for potential problems and resolving those problems prior to data analysis.  Data problems include incomplete, incorrect, or incorrectly formatted data. Why is Data Cleaning Important? The results … Read more

## Report Simple Linear Regression from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we will show you how to report the results of your simple linear regression analysis from SPSS in APA style.  First, we will provide a template that you can use to report your results.  Next, we will show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own analysis.  … Read more

## Simple Linear Regression in SPSS, Including Interpretation

In this tutorial we show you how to conduct simple linear regression analysis in SPSS, and interpret the results of your analysis.  Quick Steps Visualize your data with a scatterplot Click Analyze -> Regression -> Linear Move your independent variable to the Independent(s) box Move your dependent variable to the Dependent box Click Statistics Ensure that the Estimates and Model fit … Read more

## Reporting a Repeated-Measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report the results of a repeated-measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA style.  First, we give you a template that you can use for this purpose.  Then, we show you how to populate this template using your own SPSS output.  Finally, we provide an example of a repeated-measures … Read more