## How to Manually Enter Data in R: A Step-by-Step Guide

In this tutorial, we show you how to manually enter data in R by working through a few simple examples.   We will use RStudio, a program that makes it easier for users to work with R. We start by showing you how to create vectors (or variables) in RStudio.  Then we show you how to … Read more

## Report a Kruskal-Wallis Test from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we will show you how to report a Kruskal-Wallis test from SPSS in APA style. First we give you a template that you can use to report the results of a Kruskal-Wallis test.  Next we show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own test.  Finally we … Read more

## Kruskal-Wallis Test With Post-Hoc in SPSS

In this tutorial, we will show you how to conduct and interpret a Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc analysis in SPSS.  Researchers use the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether there are differences between three or more groups on a dependent variable measured at the continuous or ordinal level.  For example, we could use it to evaluate … Read more

## How to Clean Data in SPSS

In this tutorial, we will show you how to clean your data in SPSS. What is Data Cleaning? Data cleaning is the process of reviewing a data set for potential problems and resolving those problems prior to data analysis.  Data problems include incomplete, incorrect, or incorrectly formatted data. Why is Data Cleaning Important? The results … Read more

## Report Simple Linear Regression from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we will show you how to report the results of your simple linear regression analysis from SPSS in APA style.  First, we will provide a template that you can use to report your results.  Next, we will show you how to populate this template using the SPSS output from your own analysis.  … Read more

## Simple Linear Regression in SPSS, Including Interpretation

In this tutorial we show you how to conduct simple linear regression analysis in SPSS, and interpret the results of your analysis.  Quick Steps Visualize your data with a scatterplot Click Analyze -> Regression -> Linear Move your independent variable to the Independent(s) box Move your dependent variable to the Dependent box Click Statistics Ensure that the Estimates and Model fit … Read more

## Reporting a Repeated-Measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial, we show you how to report the results of a repeated-measures ANOVA from SPSS in APA style.  First, we give you a template that you can use for this purpose.  Then, we show you how to populate this template using your own SPSS output.  Finally, we provide an example of a repeated-measures … Read more

## How to Report a Two-Way ANOVA from SPSS in APA Style

In this tutorial we show you how to report a two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) from SPSS in APA style.  First, we provide a template that you can use to report your two-way ANOVA in APA style.  We show you how to populate it using your SPSS output, and we give you an example report … Read more

## How to Merge Files in SPSS

There are two ways in which you can merge files (data sets) in SPSS. Firstly, you can merge files that contain the same variables (fields or columns) but different records or cases (rows). Secondly, you can merge files that contain the same records or cases (rows) but different variables (fields or columns). The steps for … Read more

## How to Split Files in SPSS – Analyzing Data by Group

The Split File option in SPSS allows you to split your dataset into subgroups so that you can run the same analyses for each subgroup. SPSS does not split your file physically. Rather it separates your analyses using the categorical variable that you have used to split – or group – your data. Examples of … Read more

## Simple Main Effects Tests for Two-Way ANOVA with Significant Interaction in SPSS

In this tutorial we show you how to conduct simple main effects tests in SPSS for a two-way ANOVA with a significant interaction effect. We also show you how to interpret the results of these tests. The two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) assesses the effects of two independent categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable. … Read more

## Pairwise Comparisons for a Two-Way ANOVA in SPSS (No Significant Interaction Effect)

The two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) assesses the effects of two independent categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable.  If you find a significant main effect for one or both of your independent variables with a two-way ANOVA – and you do not find a significant interaction effect between these variables – you can conduct … Read more

## Two-Way ANOVA in SPSS Including Interpretation

The two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) is used to assess the effects of two independent categorical variables (such as gender and college major) – both alone and in combination with each other – on a continuous dependent variable (such as an exam score). In this tutorial we show you how to perform and interpret the … Read more

## How to Create and Interpret Side-by-Side Boxplots in SPSS

Side-by-side boxplots (or box and whisker plots) are a way of visually comparing the distribution of numeric data using the “five number summary” – the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values – of two or more groups. They also allow us to identify any outliers that may exist in our data. This … Read more

## How to Create and Interpret a Boxplot in SPSS

A boxplot (also known as a box and whisker plot) is a way of graphically illustrating the distribution of numeric data using the “five number summary” of the data set – namely the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values.  It also identifies any outliers that may exist in the data set.  This … Read more

## How to Edit Bar Charts in SPSS

SPSS allows users to make a wide variety of edits to their bar charts.  In this tutorial we will show you the easiest way to make some of the most common and useful edits using the same simple bar chart. Please see our dedicated tutorial if you wish to format your SPSS chart in APA … Read more

## 7 Ways to Make Better Pie Charts in SPSS

In this tutorial we show you seven edits that can make your SPSS pie charts better.  Select the edits that work best for your own pie chart, and remember that the goal of your edits is to communicate your data to your audience as clearly as possible.   1. Editing Your Pie Chart in SPSS … Read more

## Mann-Whitney U Test in SPSS, Including Interpretation

In this tutorial, we’ll look at how to conduct the Mann-Whitney U Test in SPSS, and also at how to interpret the result of the test. The Mann-Whitney U Test evaluates whether two samples are likely to originate from the same underlying population, and it tends to be used in situations where an independent-samples t … Read more

## Repeated-Measures ANOVA in SPSS, Including Interpretation

In this tutorial, we’ll look at how to perform a repeated-measures (or within-subjects) ANOVA in SPSS, and also at how to interpret the result. A repeated-measures ANOVA design is sometimes used to analyze data from a longitudinal study, where the requirement is to assess the effect of the passage of time on a particular variable. … Read more

## One Way ANOVA in SPSS Including Interpretation

In this tutorial, we’ll look at how to perform a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent groups in SPSS, and how to interpret the result using Tukey’s HSD. Quick Steps Click on Analyze -> Compare Means -> One-Way ANOVA Drag and drop your independent variable into the Factor box and dependent variable into the … Read more